Appendix A1: The Rise of the Turks

Appendix A1 covers the history of the Turks, from their prehistoric origins in Central Asia, to the capture of Constantinople in 1453.

Appendix A1.png

Bibliography

Ansary, Tamim, Destiny Disrupted: A History of the World Through Islamic Eyes, (New York: Public Affairs, 2009)

Crowley, Roger, 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West, (New York: Hyperion, 2005)

Findley, Carter Vaughn, The Turks in World History, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005)

Goldschmidt Jr., Arthur, Davidson, Lawrence, A Concise History of the Middle East; Ten Edition, (Boulder: Westview Press, 2013)

Hoyland, Robert G., Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam, (Princeton: The Darwin Press, 1997)

Lewis, Bernard, The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years, (New York: Touchstone, 1995)

Maps

 The Xiongnu Emprie

The Xiongnu Emprie

 The Rouran Empire

The Rouran Empire

 Uyghur Empire

Uyghur Empire

 Khazar Empire

Khazar Empire

 Turkish Empire

Turkish Empire

 Central Asia

Central Asia