Appendix A1: The Rise of the Turks

Appendix A1 covers the history of the Turks, from their prehistoric origins in Central Asia, to the capture of Constantinople in 1453.

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Ansary, Tamim, Destiny Disrupted: A History of the World Through Islamic Eyes, (New York: Public Affairs, 2009)

Crowley, Roger, 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West, (New York: Hyperion, 2005)

Findley, Carter Vaughn, The Turks in World History, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005)

Goldschmidt Jr., Arthur, Davidson, Lawrence, A Concise History of the Middle East; Ten Edition, (Boulder: Westview Press, 2013)

Hoyland, Robert G., Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam, (Princeton: The Darwin Press, 1997)

Lewis, Bernard, The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years, (New York: Touchstone, 1995)